Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most prevalent cancer of the head and neck with over 500,000 new cases every year worldwide. The stage of disease at diagnosis is associated with the 5-year survival rate. Unfortunately, approximately two-thirds of patients are diagnosed with advanced disease with local and regional or distant spread. Earlier detection of OSCC may be improved with the development of adjunctive techniques for clinical detection and diagnosis, which is expected to enhance the prognosis of the disease. This narrative review aims to provide an overview of adjuncts that are available for clinical use to assist in improving detection of potentially malignant epithelial lesions and early-stage OSCC.
Keywords: cytology, diagnostic techniques, fluorescence, oral cancer, toluidine blue