Purpose: To present a short review of recent literature available on the association of periodontal and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and the role of peridontal disease as a risk factor to exacerbate CVD.
Materials and Methods: A thorough search of articles was carried out on the databases PUBMED and MEDLINE on the association of periodontal and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The selected literature included review articles, observational and case-control studies as well as randomised control trials. While selecting articles, priority was placed on papers published within the last 12 years. A brief description of periodontal diseases, atherosclerosis, underlying pathophysiology and oral bacteria has been included.
Results and Conclusion: There is growing evidence of the association of periodontal diseases and CVD, as reviewed by the epidemiological studies. The in vitro studies also highlight a potential link between oral bacteria and atherosclerosis. Thus, there is urgent need for proper case controls and efficient interventional trials to analyse how such interventions can produce a positive outcome on cardiovascular diseases. Some recent interventional trials have shown that periodontal treatment can decrease markers of systemic inflammation. The relationship between periodontal diseases and CVD deserves further research because of its consequences for public health.
Keywords: atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, C-reactive protein oral bacteria, periodontal diseases