Purpose: To investigate the association between maternal periodontal disease and its effect on haemoglobin levels and low birth weight infants.
Materials and Methods: This observational study included 770 mothers. Data regarding the periodontal status, pregnancy outcome variables, haemoglobin levels (Hb%) and other factors that may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes were collected. The data were analysed using the chi-square test and univariate logistic regression analysis.
Results: Factors such as literacy (P = 0.002), adverse oral habits (P < 0.001), dental health negligence (P < 0.001), obstetric history (P = 0.001) and Hb% (P < 0.001) showed a significant association with periodontal disease. The study showed only seven mothers had not received antenatal care (ANC), which reflected the awareness of ANC during pregnancy. The reduced haemoglobin levels had an association with the severity of periodontal disease. The univariate logistic regression analysis indicated that mothers with a probing pocket depth (PPD) > 6 mm (OR = 2.21, 95% CI [1.07-4.55], P = 0.032) had a higher risk of giving birth to low birth weight infants.
Conclusion: Periodontitis significantly influenced low birth weight. The increase in the severity of periodontal disease was associated with an increased rate of pre-term infants. The severity of periodontitis influenced the maternal haemoglobin levels, i.e. more severe peridontitis was associated with lower haemoglobin levels. Severe anaemia and periodontal infection may have an adverse effect on pregnancy and fetal development.
Keywords: gestational age, haemoglobin, low birth weight, periodontal disease