Purpose: The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the prevalence of taurodont molars among an Indian population. The goal was also to determine sexual dimorphism, distribution of taurodontism as well as any association between taurodontism and simultaneously occurring syndromes and anomalies.
Materials and Methods: Full-mouth periapical radiographs of a total of 1360 patients were screened. A total of 9792 molars (including third molars) were evaluated. The relative incidence and the correlations regarding the location of taurodonts (right versus left side and maxillary versus mandibular) were analysed using the Z test.
Results: The overall incidence of subjects with taurodont molars among this Indian population was 2.5% (34/1360). Sexual distribution showed female dominance (21 females, 13 males), but this was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). Maxillary second molars (35/118) were the most commonly involved teeth, followed by mandibular second molars (32/118). No significant differences were obtained for distribution by side (right vs left; P > 0.05) or interarch distribution (maxillary vs mandibular; P > 0.05). Out of 34 subjects with taurodonts, 50% (17/34) were associated with pyramidal molars and 32.35% (11/34) had impacted molars.
Conclusions: Taurodontism is not uncommon in the Indian population and it might be associated with other conditions, such as pyramidal molars and impaction. Further larger scale studies are required to assess its prevalence in the general population and to establish any associations.
Keywords: anomalies, association, prevalence, pyramidal molars, taurodont