Purpose: To assess the anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D on gingivitis at various doses.
Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, daily oral vitamin D supplementation was given in doses of 2000 IU for group A, 1000 IU for group B, 500 IU for group C and a placebo for group D over a 3-month period. The changes in gingival scores were measured after the 1st, 2nd and 3rd months.
Results: The gingivitis score changed in direct proportion to the dose of vitamin D supplementation. In group A, the mean gingival scores were 2.4 (baseline), 1.7 after the first month, 0.8 after the second month and 0.3 after the third month. The group B mean baseline gingival score of 2.3 decreased to 2.0 in the first month, 1.1 after the second month and 0.5 after the third month. In group C, the baseline gingival scores were 2.2 and 1.9 after one month, 1.4 after two months and 0.8 by the last visit. Comparing baseline gingivitis scores with the later-visit score using the Wilcoxon paired test, the significant anti-inflammatory effect was seen in group A after one month, in group B at two months and in group C at three months after oral vitamin D supplementation (P < 0.0001). However, group D did not show a significant antiinflammatory effect.
Conclusion: There is a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D on gingivitis. Vitamin D is a safe and effective anti-inflammatory agent in doses ranging from 500 IU to 2000 IU. Results are apparent earlier with the higher dose of 2000 IU.
Keywords: anti-inflammatory effect, gingivitis, 25 hydroxyvitamin D