Purpose: To investigate the relationship between the type and material of dental restorations and periodontal health in a sample of Jordanians.
Materials and Methods: Patients attending the Dental Teaching Clinics of Jordan University of Science and Technology with restored teeth were examined. For every patient, the plaque index, gingival index, probing depth and clinical attachment level were recorded on restored and non-restored tooth surfaces. The restoration types were Classes II, III and V, in addition to crowns and bridge abutments. The restorative materials included amalgam, tooth-coloured materials (resin composite and glass ionomer), non-precious alloys, porcelain and acrylic.
Results: Class III restorations were associated with the lowest plaque index (0.62), gingival index (1.13), probing depth (1.62 mm) and clinical attachment level (0.31 mm). Class II restorations had the highest plaque index (0.99) and probing depth values (2.27 mm). Crowns and bridge abutments had the highest gingival index (1.65 and 1.61, respectively), high probing depth (2.01 and 2.15 mm), but a low plaque index (0.69 and 0.66). Class V restorations demonstrated the highest attachment loss (0.92 mm). Resin composite and glass ionomer restorative materials demonstrated the lowest gingival index (1.21) and probing depth (1.75 mm), whereas porcelain demonstrated the lowest plaque index (0.51) and clinical attachment level (0.14 mm). Amalgam was associated with the highest plaque index (1.01) and probing depth (2.29 mm). Non-precious alloys and acrylic covered castings demonstrated the highest gingival index (1.73 and 1.72, respectively) and clinical attachment level (1.00 and 0.88 mm).
Conclusions: Crowns, bridge abutments (especially acrylic and non-precious metals) and Class II amalgam restorations appear to be associated with periodontal breakdown.
Keywords: Jordan, periodontal disease, periodontal health, restoration, restorative material