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Journal of Orofacial Pain

Year 1989
Volume 3 , Issue 1

Pages: 7 - 14

Guidelines for the Examination and Diagnosis of Temporomandibular Disorders


These guidelines propose performance criteria for the history and examination of patients with temporomandibular (TM) disorders. Pertinent diagnostic subcategories are identified, and the comprehensive procedures include documentation of temporomandibular and craniocervical range of motion, TM joint sounds, and the recording of muscle and joint tenderness. The TM disorders addressed include muscle problems such as myalgia, protective splinting or trismus, spasm, myositis, dyskinesia, muscle contracture, hypertrophy, and bruxism. Temporomandibular joint disorders addressed include disk-condyle incoordination, restricted condyle translation, open condyle dislocation, arthralgia, osteoarthritis, polyarthritis, and traumatic joint injury. Disorders of mandibular mobility such as ankylosis, adhesions, fibrosis, skeletal obstruction, and hypermobility are also described. Finally, disorders of maxillomandibular growth, including masticatory muscle hypertrophy, atrophy, neoplasia, maxillomandibular hypoplasia, condylar agenesis, maxillomandibular hyperplasia, and condyle hypertrophy are described.


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