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Quintessence Publishing: Journals: OFPH
Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache

Edited by Barry J. Sessle, BDS, MDS, BSc, PhD, FRSC

Official Journal of the American Academy of Orofacial Pain,
the European, Asian, and Ibero-Latin Academies of Craniomandibular
Disorders, and the Australian Academy of Orofacial Pain

ISSN 2333-0384 (print) • ISSN 2333-0376 (online)

Publication:
Spring 2009
Volume 23 , Issue 2

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PRISM (Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure): A Novel Visual Instrument to Assess Pain and Suffering in Orofacial Pain Patients

Marie-Luise Streffer, MD, DMD, Stefan Büchi, MD, Hanspeter Mörgeli, PhD, Ursula Galli, PhD, Dominik Ettlin, MD, DMD

Pages: 140–146
PMID: 19492538

Aims: To use PRISM (Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure), a visual instrument that has recently been developed and validated to assess suffering in patients with chronic physical illness, in orofacial pain patients and test for associations of PRISM with established assessment tools for pain, affective symptoms, and sleep. Of particular interest was the utility of PRISM as a screening tool for severely suffering patients. Methods: One hundred and two orofacial pain patients recruited from a specialized outpatient service completed a questionnaire-based survey, including established assessment tools: the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Graded Chronic Pain Scale (GCPS), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), as well as a paper and pencil version of PRISM. Results: Of the 102 patients who submitted the clinical questionnaire, 74 performed the PRISM-test (response rate: 72%). PRISM scores correlated strongly with all subscores of pain (measured by GCPS) and sleep (measured by ISI). Further, a trend was observed in the correlation with affective symptoms measured by the HADS. PRISM could readily detect patients with high, pain-related suffering. Conclusion: These data add support to the hypothesis that the PRISM task in its paper and pencil version is measuring the burden of suffering. The clinical utility of this simple graphic tool therefore lies in its potential to alert clinicians to a high burden of suffering and thus it may help to identify orofacial pain patients who may benefit from more comprehensive assessment and treatment. Prospective studies are needed to clarify this claim. J OROFAC PAIN 2009;23:140–146.

Key words: anxiety, depression, orofacial pain, PRISM, sleep, suffering

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