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Volume 21 , Issue 3
Summer 2007


Topical Review - Connective Tissue Diseases: Orofacial Manifestations Including Pain

Gary D. Klasser, DMD / Ramesh Balasubramaniam, BDSc / Joel Epstein, DMD, MSD

This topical review presents an overview of orofacial manifestations associated with the more common connective tissue diseases affecting multiple organs. The orofacial manifestations associated with these autoimmune disorders include oral mucosa alterations, salivary gland pathosis, sensory neuropathies, headaches, and temporomandibular disorders. Since many of these orofacial manifestations may be painful, the practitioner managing pain patients should be familiar with them. An understanding of the orofacial manifestations associated with these systemic diseases will enable the pain practitioner to establish an appropriate diagnosis within the context of the underlying systemic disease. This will allow the practitioner the opportunity to contribute and collaborate as a member of a multidisciplinary health-care team in the management of these systemic autoimmune diseases. J Orofac Pain 2007; 21:171184

Key words: connective tissue disease, headache, orofacial manifestation, temporomandibular disorders, trigeminal neuropathy


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