To review the literature regarding cytokines and PGE2 levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in healthy and diseased periodontium.
A Medline search ending at March 2004 was performed, in the English literature, regarding IL-1â, TNF-á and PGE2 in the GCF, and the data was reviewed systematically.
Low levels of these markers were reported in healthy periodontium. Significant increase in the amount of IL-1â and PGE2 was noted in gingivitis and periodontitis. Most of the studies have shown that there is a marked decrease in IL-1â and PGE2 levels of periodontal disease patients after therapy, while inconsistent results were found for TNF-á.
The IL-1â, TNF-á and PGE2 levels may be indicative of periodontal status, and amount rather than concentration being more reliable in reflecting the real status of the periodontium.