Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical feasibility and the benefits of using two different wavelengths of laser energy, the Er:YAG laser for treating the caries cavity and the opening of the pulp chamber, and the Nd:YAG laser to achieve the physical sterilization and the superficial coagulation of the remaining pulp tissue in the root canal in primary and young permanent teeth before the placement of three different pulp dressing materials. Materials and Methods: A simple questionnaire was answered by all participating children with reference to their acceptance of the treatment. One hundred eighteen teeth were treated (65 primary and 53 young permanent), using as capping agents: a) a paste of calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 and sterile water in 67 teeth, b) a combination of equal parts of Ca(OH)2 and iodoform in 41 teeth, and finally c) glass-ionomer cement in 10 teeth. The treated teeth were evaluated clinically and radiologically during the first year every three months and then annually. Successful treatments were defined as those lacking: spontaneous pain or pain induced by cold, hot, or percussive stimuli; pathological mobility; pathological radiograph; and/or inflammatory aspect of the surrounding soft tissues. Results: Successful treatment resulted in 95.38% of the primary teeth and in 100% of the permanent teeth. Conclusion: The results show this to be a highly effective treatment, the only one which guarantees access and total treatment of the pulp in sterile conditions. Further research is necessary to confirm the histological aspects of the apparent clinical success.
Keywords: pulpotomy, pulp therapy, Er:YAG laser, Nd:YAG laser