Purpose: The purpose of the study was three-fold: 1) to determine the strength of the bond between a number of dual-curing resin cements and dentin treated with corresponding adhesive systems, 2) to determine the effect on bond strength of not light curing the cements, and 3) to investigate whether application of a solution of sodium sulfinate or ascorbic acid would increase the bond strength in the cases where the manufacturers version of an adhesive system resulted in low bond strength with chemically cured cement, ie, cement cured without light. Materials and Methods: The adhesive systems comprised 5 simplified systems (Adper Scothcbond 1 XT, ED Primer II, Excite DSC, OptiBond Solo Plus, and Prime & Bond NT), and as controls, two three-step etch and rinse systems (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus and Gluma Solid Bond). The corresponding dual-curing resin cements were RelyX ARC, Panavia F 2.0, Variolink II, Nexus 2, Calibra, RelyX ARC, and 2Bond2. The cements were either light and chemically cured or only chemically cured. The adhesive systems were used as recommended by the manufacturers, which for some systems involved inclusion of a so-called activator or catalyst when used with chemically cured cement. Sodium sulfinate and ascorbic acid were applied as a 1% ethanol solution. The bond strengths were measured in shear after storing specimens for 24 h in 37°C water. Results: When the dual-curing resin cements had been both light and chemically cured, the bond strengths increased in this order: Gluma Solid Bond < ED Primer II < Prime & Bond NT < Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus < Excite DSC < Adper Scotchbond 1 XT < OptiBond Solo Plus. Omission of light curing of the cements decreased the bond strengths with OptiBond Solo Plus and Prime & Bond NT. The use of activator in conjunction with OptiBond Solo Plus and Prime & Bond NT increased the bond strength to chemically cured cement, but not to the level obtained when the cement was both light and chemically cured. The use of the catalyst of Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus did not increase the bond strength with chemically cured cement. Pretreatment with a solution of sodium sulfinate or ascorbic acid increased the bond strength with chemically cured cement in the case of OptiBond Solo Plus, whereas only the solution of sodium sulfinate was effective with Prime & Bond NT. Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware that in situations where a dual-curing resin cement cannot be light cured, some adhesive systems suffer a loss of efficacy, even when respective activators are used. Pretreatment with a 1% ethanol solution of sodium sulfinate may restore much of the lost bond strength.
Keywords: activator, adhesion, chemical cure, initiator, photopolymerization