Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different acid etching times with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid gel and two adhesive systems on shear bond strengths of resin composite to porcelain. Materials and Methods: Ninety-eight 7 x 7 x 2 mm feldspathic porcelain blocks (VMK 95, Vita) were prepared. The specimens were divided into 7 groups: 1 control (no surface treatment) and 6 groups acid etched with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid gel for different etching times, including 30 s, 30+30 s, 60 s, 60+60 s, 120 s, and 180 s. Each of the etching time groups was divided into two bonding agent (Single Bond, AdheSE) subgroups (n = 7). Microhybrid composite (Filtek Z250) was condensed using a teflon mold and light polymerized for 20 s on the porcelain specimens. The prepared specimens were then stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 h before mechanical testing. Shear testing of all groups was performed on a universal testing machine (Lloyd LRX) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The bond strength data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA. The means were compared using the Tukey HSD test (α = 0.05). Results: Acid etching time and bonding agent statistically significantly influenced bond strength (p < 0.05). In the Single Bond group, the bond strengths between group 0 (10.48 MPa) and Group 30 (11.17 MPa) did not differ significantly, with these groups exhibiting the lowest bond strength values. The highest bond strength in Single Bond group was observed in group 120 (15.07 MPa) and group 60+60 (15.42 MPa), which did not differ significantly from each other. In the AdheSE group, the bond strengths of group 0 (9.33 MPa) and group 30 (9.49 MPa) did not differ significantly, and these groups exhibited the lowest bond strength values. The highest bond strengths in the AdheSE subgroup were observed in group 120 (14.84 MPa) and group 60+60 (14.96 MPa), which were not significantly different. Comparing the two different adhesive systems, Single Bond exhibited higher bond strength values than did the selfetching adhesive AdheSE. Conclusions: Acid etching of porcelain with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid gel for 120 s provided adequate bond strength for composite repair with a microhybrid composite. When a porcelain restoration is repaired with composite, Single Bond adhesive should be preferred to the AdheSE self-etching adhesive system.
Keywords: acid etching time, self-etching adhesive, porcelain, composite resin