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Quintessence Publishing: Journals: JAD


The Journal of Adhesive Dentistry

Edited by Prof. Dr. Roland Frankenberger, Prof. Bart Van Meerbeek

ISSN (print) 1461-5185 • ISSN (online) 1757-9988


July/August 2013
Volume 15 , Issue 4

Pages: 377-383
PMID: 23534032
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a29381
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Long-term Bond of Glass Ceramic and Resin Cement: Evaluation of Titanium Tetrafluoride as an Alternative Etching Agent for Lithium Disilicate Ceramics

Klosa, Karsten / Boesch, Ineke / Kern, Matthias

Purpose: To evaluate in vitro the effect of using titanium tetrafluoride as an alternative etchant prior to the silanization of the bonding surface on the long-term resin bond strength to lithium disilicate ceramic.
Materials and Methods: Disk-shaped specimens made of lithium disilicate ceramic were ground with abrasive paper, then etched with aqueous solutions (2.5% and 5%) of titanium tetrafluoride for 60 s, 120 s and 240 s. Positive control specimens were etched with 5% hydrofluoric acid for 20 s and negative control specimens were not etched. Afterwards, bonding surfaces of all specimens were silanized. Plexiglas tubes filled with a composite resin were bonded to the specimens using an alignment apparatus and a composite luting resin. After storage in 37C tap water for three days (n = 8) and after storage in 37C tap water for 150 days interrupted by 5 x 7500 thermal cycles (n = 8), tensile bond strength (TBS) was measured in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 2 mm/min.
Results: After artificial aging, all specimens etched with titanium tetrafluoride debonded spontaneously resulting in a TBS of 0 MPa. Therefore, statistical analysis revealed a highly significant difference between the positive control and the test groups after 150 days storage.
Conclusion: Etching the bonding surface of lithium disilicate ceramic restorations with hydrofluoric acid is still a gold standard and cannot be replaced by titanium tetrafluoride.

Keywords: tensile bond strength, etching, lithium disilicate ceramic, titanium tetrafluoride, artificial aging

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