Purpose: To evaluate the effect of applied power on dental ceramic bonding of composite resin using nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma (APP).
Materials and Methods: A pencil-type APP torch was used to modify the surface chemical composition and hydrophilicity of dental ceramic and to improve the adhesion of composite resin to the surface. The effect of the applied power on chemical changes of the plasma polymer on a ceramic surface and the adhesive strength between the composite resin and feldspathic porcelain were examined. Adhesion was evaluated by comparing shear bond strengths (SBS) using the iris method. The chemical composition of the plasma polymer deposited on the ceramic surface was evaluated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Hydrophilicity was evaluated by contact angle measurements. The fracture mode at the interface was also evaluated.
Results: The APP treatment was effective and the SBS of the experimental groups were significantly higher than those of the negative control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, the SBS obtained with the APP treatment at the highest input voltage was statistically similar to the gold standard of HF etching and silane coupling-agent coating. Two-thirds of the fractures observed in the specimens bonded with application of APP were mixed and cohesive fractures.
Conclusion: Application of APP enhanced adhesion by producing carboxyl groups on the ceramic surface and as a result by improving surface hydrophilicity. The carboxyl group contents in the plasma polymer on the ceramic surface increased as the applied power increased.
Keywords: nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma (APP), ceramic bonding, applied power, hydrophilicity, chemical composition, polymer deposition