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Volume 5 , Issue 5
September/October 1992

Pages 424-433

The Effect of Five Investing Techniques on Air Bubble Entrapment and Casting Nodules


PMID: 1290571

Five different investing techniques were used to invest lost-wax casting patterns. The use of an investing technique that subjects the invested casting ring to air pressure (40 lb per square inch) during setting was found to produce less air bubble/cast nodule incidence than did the other four techniques investigated. Not all cast nodules can be seen by the unaided eye; magnification is needed. More cast nodules than air bubbles were seen at the interface of pattern and investment, showing that there may be many air bubbles below the investment surface that are entered by the incoming alloy during casting. The effect of a surface-tension reducing (STR) agent on the air bubble incidence between pattern and investment depends on the investing technique used, although all techniques used showed a reduction in cast nodule incidence when an STR agent was used. Sprue direction was also found to influence the incidence of casting nodules.

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