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Volume 14 , Issue 1
January/February 2001

Pages 40–47


Microstructures of Brazings and Welds Using Grade 2 Commercially Pure Titanium

H. W. Anselm Wiskott, DMD, MS, MSD, Thierry Doumas, DMD, Susanne S. Scherrer, DMD, Christian Susz, PhD, Urs C. Belser, DMD, PhD


PMID: 11842903

Purpose: Microstructural analyses of commercially pure titanium (CpTi) are scarce. The present report presents the micrographs, fractographs, elemental characteristics, and hardness profiles of brazed joints and weldments using machined rods of CpTi. Materials and Methods: CpTi rods were joined using four techniques: laser welding, electric-arc welding, electron-beam welding, and gold- and Ti-filler brazing. The specimens were then subjected to tensile and fatigue loading. After sectioning and patterning, optical micrographs of intact joints were obtained. Fractured surfaces were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The joints composition was determined by SEM–energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Hardness was determined at specific locations using a microindenter. Results: While laser welding left the parent metals equiaxed structure fairly intact, electric-arc welding, electron-beam welding, and brazing created a heat-affected zone in the vicinity of the joint. The extent and characteristics of the heat-affected zone depended on the amount of heat transferred to the specimens. In this respect, brazing essentially increased grain size and altered their shape. Electron-beam welding augmented this phenomenon, yielding grains that encompassed the full diameter of the joint. Electric-arc welding disrupted the granular pattern and generated highly lamellar/acicular structures. Conclusion: Hardness was not a good indicator of mechanical resistance, nor was the joints structural continuity with the parent substrate. Still, acicular microstructures were characterized by a peculiar behavior in that such joints were highly resistant to tensile stresses while their fatigue strength ranged among the lowest of the joints tested. Int J Prosthodont 2001;14:40–47.


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