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Volume 19 , Issue 5
September/October 2006

Pages 491–498


The Effect of Smoking on Osseointegrated Dental Implants. Part I: Implant Survival

Stephelynn DeLuca, DDS / Effrat Habsha, BSc, DDS, Dip Prosth, MSc, FRCD(C) / George A. Zarb, BChD, MS, MS, DDS, FRCD(C)


PMID: 17323728

Purpose: Recent studies implicate smoking as a significant factor in the failure of dental implants. The purpose of this long-term retrospective study was to evaluate the survival of Brånemark endosseous dental implants in relation to cigarette smoking. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 464 consecutively treated completely and partially edentulous patients who had a total of 1852 implants placed between 1979 and 1999, and who were part of a surgical/prosthodontic prospective treatment outcomes study. The effect of cigarette smoking on implant survival in relation to the time of implant failure, gender, age, surgeon, date and site of implant placement, implant length and diameter, prosthesis design, and occlusal loading considerations was assessed in bivariate and multivariate survival analyses. Results: The overall implant failure rate was 7.72%. Patients who were smokers at the time of implant surgery had a significantly higher implant failure rate (23.08%) than nonsmokers (13.33%). Multivariate survival analysis showed early implant failure to be significantly associated with smoking at the time of stage 1 surgery and late implant failure to be significantly associated with a positive smoking history. Short implants and implant placement in the maxilla were additional independent risk factors for implant failure. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking should not be an absolute contraindication for implant therapy; however, patients should be informed that they are at a slightly greater risk of implant failure if they smoke during the initial healing phase following implant insertion or if they have a significant smoking history. Int J Prosthodont 2006;19:491–498.


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