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Volume 19 , Issue 4
July/August 2006

Pages 319329

Which Surface Properties Enhance Bone Response to Implants? Comparison of Oxidized Magnesium, TiUnite, and Osseotite Implant Surfaces

Young-Taeg Sul, DDS, PhD / Carina Johansson, PhD / Tomas Albrektsson, MD, PhD, ODhcc

PMID: 16900812

Purpose: This study compared the speed and strength of osseointegration and osteoconductivity between an oxidized experimental magnesium (Mg) implant, an oxidized commercially available TiUnite implant, and a dual acid-etched surface Osseotite implant. The aim was to investigate which surface properties enhance bone response to implants, and thereby to test a biochemical bonding theory. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 screw implants (20 of each design) were inserted through 1 cortex into the tibiae of 10 rabbits. Surface chemistry, oxide thickness, morphology, crystal structure, and surface roughness were evaluated. After healing times of 3 and 6 weeks, all bone implants were unscrewed with removal torque (RTQ) devices, and the bone specimens were subjected to histomorphometry. Results: RTQ values for Mg, TiUnite, and Osseotite implants were 27.1, 21.3, and 15.4 Ncm, with new bone formation values of 29%, 18%, and 15%, respectively, at 3 weeks. At 6 weeks the RTQ values were 37.5, 36.4, and 21.5 Ncm, with new bone formation values of 39%, 31%, and 26%, respectively. Discussion: Mg implants demonstrated significantly greater RTQ values (P = .008 and P = .0001) and more new bone formation (P = .031 and P = .030) than Osseotite at 3 and 6 weeks, respectively. Mg implants also showed higher RTQ values at 3 weeks and new bone formation at 6 weeks than TiUnite, but neither were significant (P > .05). TiUnite showed significantly higher RTQ values than Osseotite at 6 weeks (P = .001), but was not significant at 3 weeks (P >.05). Osseointegration rate (∆RTQ/∆weeks) was significantly faster for Mg (P = .011) and TiUnite (P = .001) implants between 3 and 6 weeks of healing time, but was not significant for Osseotite. Conclusions: The results indicate that surface chemistry facilitated more rapid and stronger osseointegration of the Mg implants despite their minimal roughness compared to the moderately roughened TiUnite. This suggests potential advantages of Mg implants for reducing high implant failure rates in the early postimplantation stage and in compromised bone, making it possible to shorten bone healing time from surgery to functional loading, and enhancing the possibility of immediate/early loading. Int J Prosthodont 2006;19:319329.

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