Due to the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV infection has gradually become more of a chronic immunodeficiency disease. In response to HAART, the CD4 cell count, in most cases, increases and thereby the HIV-infected patients are at a lower risk of developing opportunistic infections; this leads to an enhanced quality of life and a reduced mortality. Therefore, nowadays, the endodontist is more likely to encounter an HIV-infected patient in need of endodontic treatment. Unfortunately there is a lack of guidelines for the treatment of HIV-infected or AIDS patients. The intention of this overview is to evaluate current knowledge regarding endodontic treatment and its outcome in HIV-infected patients.
Keywords: AIDS, CD4 cell count, HAART, infection control, Kaposis sarcoma, prophylactic antibiotic treatment, treatment outcome