The present study evaluated gingival recession 1 year following apical surgery of 70 maxillary anterior teeth (central and lateral incisors, canines, and first premolars). A visual assessment of the midfacial aspect of the gingival level and of papillary heights of treated teeth was carried out using photographs taken at pre-treatment and 1-year follow-up appointments. In addition, changes in the gingival margin (GM) and clinical attachment levels (CAL) were calculated with the use of clinical measurements, that is, pre-treatment and 1-year follow-up pocket probing depth and level of gingival margin. Changes in GM and CAL were then correlated with patient-, tooth- and surgeryrelated parameters. The following parameters were found to significantly influence changes in GM and CAL over time: gingival biotype (P< 0.05), with thin biotype exhibiting more gingival recession than thick biotype; pre-treatment pocket probing depth (PPD) (P< 0.03), with cases of pre-treatment PPD < 2.5 mm demonstrating more attachment loss than cases of PPD ≥ 2.5 mm; and type of incision (P< 0.01), with the submarginal incision showing considerably less gingival recession compared with the intrasulcular incision, papilla-base incision or papilla-saving incision. The visual assessment using pre-treatment and 1-year follow-up photographs did not demonstrate significant changes in gingival level or papillary height after apical surgery. In conclusion, gingival biotype, pre-treatment PPD, and type of incision may significantly influence changes in GM and CAL following apical surgery in maxillary anterior teeth.
Keywords: aesthetics, apical surgery, follow-up study, gingival recession, periodontal parameters