Effective and efficient local anaesthesia is the cornerstone of pain-free dentistry. Dental, but especially endodontic, procedures are often perceived by patients to inevitably inflict pain. Patients must not be discouraged from seeking dental or endodontic treatment for fear of pain. Local anaesthesia for dental or endodontic procedures is usually achieved by using an anaesthetic drug, in solutionform, which is injected using a needle and syringe. Although this method of delivery is effective, the local anaesthetic injection itself is not completely pain-free. As a result, there are patients who fear the injection or the needle itself, as it is associated with pain. The aim of this article is to review alternative local anaesthetic delivery systems and devices, including supplementary aids, to the conventional needle and syringe, which are designed to minimise painful injections.
Keywords: dental anxiety, injection, local anaesthetic, needle, pain