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The Chinese Journal of Dental Research

Year 2002
Volume 5 , Issue 3

Pages: 25 - 29

Repair of Craniotomy Defects with Tissue Engineering

Yulai Weng, DDS, MS/Yilin Cao, MD, PhD

Objective: The primary aim of this investigation was to determine whether expanded BMSCs in vitro mixed with modified alginate gelatin could repair critical-size defects in rats without the addition of exogenous growth of bone morphogenetic factors. Methods: Bone marrow stem cells from sygeneic rats was cultured in vitro, mixed with modified alginate gel and used to paint the cranial critical-size defect. A full-thickness cranial plate was removed without damage of the dura mater. Modified alginate gelatin with or without BMSCs was painted over the cranial defects. Animals which were given the cranial defect but which received no implant served as controls. Craniotomy defects were divided into 3 groups: defects left unpainted (group I, n = 6), defects painted with modified alginate gelatin alone (group II, n = 6), and defects painted with a modified alginate mixed with BMSCs (group III, n = 6). A total of 18 implant experiments were done, with postsurgical radiographic and histological analysis carried out after 12 weeks. Results: None of the implant exhibited extrusion or infection. Radiographs showed likely increased calcification in group III, but not in group I and group II. Histology showed that group I and group II were characterized by thinning of the bone at the edges of the defect margins, with minimal bone growth inwards and dense fibrous tissue with rudimentary alginate material spanning the intervening gap. The results demonstrated that a great amount of new bone growth took place in the BMSCs-alginate group, starting at the cranial defect edges and proceeding inwards. Conclusion: The transplantation of syngeneic BMSCs with alginate gel can be a cell-based treatment for skeletal reformation and would be especially useful for augmenting or regenerating bone in skeletal defects. The use of syngeneic BMSCs with alginate gel is a potential technique for regenerating a variety of skeletal defects occurring in different clinical scenarios.



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