Infantile haemangioma is the most common tumour of infancy, yet the pathogensis of this lesion remains unknown and the predictable life cycle is poorly understood. Though much new information on infantile haemangioma has emerged over the past decade, researchers continue to debate the fundamental features; including cells of origin, nonrandom distribution, and mechanisms regulating the sometimes explosive growth and slow involution. The development of biomarkers has shed light on the pathogenesis and management of infantile haemangioma. Several useful biomarkers and their suggestions as to the aetiology of infantile haemangioma are reviewed. In addition, the application in clinical diagnosis and choice of treatment methods of infantile haemangioma is summarised.
Keywords: angiogenesis, CD133, GLUT-1, immune response, infantile haemangioma, vasculogenesis