Objective: To evaluate the effects of recasting on the biocompatibility of a commercially available Ni-Cr alloy.
Methods: The alloy tested was cast and subsequently recast four more times. For each cast condition, 24 disk shaped specimens were fabricated (5 mm in diameter, 0.5 mm in thickness). All the recasting was performed without adding new alloy. After the first cast and following each recast, the surface composition and microstructure of the alloy were determined using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and optical microscope, respectively. The in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo mucous irritation potential of the cast and recast Ni-Cr alloy were investigated. The results were statistically analysed at the significance level of 0.05.
Results: Recasting neither yielded to cytotoxicity or to changes in the surface composition of the Ni-Cr alloy tested. However, an increase in impurities and porosity of the surface structure was observed with recasting. Also, the segregation of the impurities to grain boundaries was evident after multiple castings. After the fourth recast, the alloys showed significantly greater mucosal irritation than the control.
Conclusion: After fourth recast, the alloy of this type may contribute to mucosal inflammation. Furthermore, there is a need for diverse methods addressing different biological endpoints for the evaluation of dental alloys.
Keywords: recasting, cytotoxicity, membrane irritation, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Ni-Cr alloy