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The International Journal of Adult Orthodontics & Orthogathic Surgery
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The International Journal of Adult Orthodontics & Orthognathic Surgery
(Published from 1986-2002)

Edited by Robert L. Vanarsdall, DDS and Raymond P. White, Jr, DDS, PhD

Continued by World Journal of Orthodontics.

ISSN 0742-1931

The International Adult Orthodontics & Orthognathic Surgery
Volume 17, Issue 2


Orthognathic surgery outcome analysis: 3-dimensional landmark geometric morphometrics

Banu Çakırer, DDS, PhD, David Dean, PhD, Juan Martin Palomo, DDS,MSD, Mark Guenther Hans, DDS,MSD

Traditional cephalometric analysis of 2-dimensional (2D) landmarks has been limited to distances, indices, and angles. Quantitative results vary depending on what baseline is chosen. Geometric morphometric techniques, such as Procrustes superimposition, assume all landmarks carry equivalent information. Using these methods, landmark coordinates (x, y, z) facilitate comparison of patients and ormative shapes and assessment of pre- to postoperative outcomes. Pre- and postoperative lateral and frontal cephalograms and stereophotograms were taken of a 48-year-old Caucasian man and a 38-year-old Caucasian woman. Coordinates of 3D hard tissue landmarks were collected directly from scanned cephalograms, and 3D soft tissue landmarks were collected onscreen. Procrustes superimpositions of pre- and postoperative 3D craniodental landmark coordinates and 3D soft tissue coordinates were made, and scatter plots were created to show the surgical shape change separately for each patient. Procrustes superimposition of the preoperative and ormative craniodental data (18-year-old male and female Bolton standards) provided both qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the patients, allowing a better determination of the required treatment. Unlike traditional baseline-dependent methods, Procrustes shape analysis produces a single useful measure of surgical shape change or comparison to normative shape. (Int J Adult Orthod Orthognath Surg 2002;17:116–132)

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