The motive in undertaking this book is to present the results of 30 years of research on the effect of environmental factors on craniofacial growth. The relationship between nasal obstruction and altered facial and dental structures has been discussed for at least 150 years and conflicting opinions have been presented. The authors therefore believed it important to gather their results from years of carefully controlled studies to clarify the controversy over this relationship.
During the 19th century and to the middle of the 20th, the ideas concerning the relationship between mouth breathing and malocclusion were based on clinical observation and experience. After cephalometric longitudinal material became available in the latter part of the 20th century, it was possible to obtain research results from controlled studies. It has also become possible during the past few decades to measure airflow through the nose and nasal resistance in accurate ways, which thus enabled statistical analyses.
Study of the vertical dimensions of the face in relation to the mode of breathing and to the posture of both the head and the mandible provides an excellent model to support the view that many malocclusions previously thought to be of genetic origin are in reality neuromuscular imitations of genetically based problems. The neuromuscular suspension of the mandible is a highly sensitive mechanism that responds with altered mandibular posture in some cases of chronic nasopharyngeal obstruction. Such altered mandibular posture may create various malocclusions in children.
The results gathered in this book are based on scientific longitudinal materials from the Burlington Growth Centre in Toronto, Canada, and Swedish adenoid samples from Stockholm and Örebro. Comparisons are made with longitudinal cephalometric materials from growth centers in Europe, North America, and Asia. The evaluations of the capacity to breathe through the mouth and/or the nose were made in collaboration with the ear, nose, and throat departments at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada, and at the University of Örebro, Sweden, by using both rhinomanometric and clinical tools.
This book is designed to be used by both dental and medical students in the specialized areas of orthodontics and rhinology. It will also be of great interest for clinical orthodontists, ear, nose, and throat specialists, and pediatricians.
ISBN: 0-86715-389-X, 978-0-86715-389-7
Table of Contents:
Chapter 1 Factors Affecting Facial and Dental Structures
Dentofacial Characteristics Associated with Chronic Change in Mandibular Posture
Other Neuromuscular Adaptations Secondary to Upper Airway Obstruction
Nonhuman Primate Experiments
Clinical Implications for an Assessment of Vertical Facial and Dental Relationships
Chapter 2 Three Data Samples
The Burlington Growth Centre Sample
The Örebro, Sweden, Adenoid Study
The King’s College School of Medicine and Dentistry Serial Growth Sample
Chapter 3 Radiographic Technique, Enlargement, and Measurements
The Lateral Cephalogram
The 45-Degree Oblique Radiograph
Reference Points and Measurements for the Lateral Cephalogram
Chapter 4 Population Standards for Anterior Face Height, Maxillary Length, Mandibular Length, and Growth (Distance Curves)
Population Standards for Upper Anterior Face Height, Lower Anterior Face Height, and Total Anterior Face Height
Population Standards for Maxillary Length for Ages 6 to 20
Population Standards for Mandibular Growth and Length
Chapter 5 Comparisons Among Standards for Vertical Dimension from Various Growth Centers and Races
Clinical Application of Vertical Dimension Cephalometric Standards
Chapter 6 Nasal Resistance Standards for Children
Chapter 7 Clinical Application of Vertical Change in the Jaws and Dentition
Cephalometric Identification of Skeletal Dysplasia
Analysis of Anterior Nasopharyngeal Dimensions
Chapter 8 Summary
120pp: 110 illus
"...This book is very useful for orthodontic or ENT students who are in the latter half of their residencies. Professionals who favor extraction mechanotherapy based on breathing issues or vertically oriented growth patterns whould also read this book as the statistics (and the photographs of the patients who had their tonsils and adenoids out) are very compelling. The subject is extremely important since it represents a significant percentage of the tougher cases that any professional who concentrates in facial growth will observe. I would recommend this book to any individual who is trying to understand why the vertical dimension of the face is so difficult to control." Neil M. Warshawsky, DDS, MS, PC
University of Chicago Medical Center
Doody Publishing, Inc.